A hardware wallet is a device that stores a part of a user's wallet securely in mostly-offline hardware. They have major advantages over other wallet types:
- the key is often stored in a protected area of a microcontroller, and cannot be transferred out of the device in plaintext
- immune to computer viruses that steal from software wallets
- can be used securely and interactively, as opposed to a paper wallet which much be imported to software at some point
- much of the time, the software is open source, allowing a user to validate the entire operation of the device
This page is an attempt to summarize all the known developments of hardware wallets that can use Bitcoin as part of their operation.
- 1 Hardware Wallets
- 2 Smart Card based wallets
- 3 Related Resources
Some of the more feasible (prototype stage or better) wallets are:
BitcoinCard Megion Technologies-Card based wallet
The closest so far to a mass market solution, incorporates a display, keypad, and radio (custom ISM band protocol.) Unfortunately it is fairly limited in terms of transaction I/O, requiring a radio gateway or another bitcoincard wherever funds need to be transferred. Possibly transactions could be delivered over giant QR codes.
piglet slush/stick hardware wallet
A simple transaction-signing device, requires software on the receiving side to send and receive transactions. Talks over USB, no keypad for entering data.
BitSafe allten's hardware wallet
ANN BitSafe Hardware Wallet Development - BOM Ready - 50 kits being prepared
Signing transactions only, requires USB host software for transactions & USB power. Evolved out of someone42's prototype below, and has had significant contributions from someone42 as well.
someone42's (prototype) hardware wallet
Hardware Bitcoin wallet - a minimal Bitcoin wallet for embedded devices
Signing transactions only, requires USB host software for transactions & USB power. All work is rolled into the above BitSafe wallet currently.
BTChip btchip USB based transaction signer and private key holder
ANN Smartcard wallet project + btchip implementation (no reader required)
USB smartcard dedicated to bitcoins, no keypad or display so trust in the host device is required.
Other/Defunct but with good discussion:
- natman3400's BitClip Jun 2011 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=24852.0
- Seems to have gone defunct around Dec 2011. Some good ideas though and seemed to have started on execution.
- jim618 hardware wallet proposal Apr 2012 Dedicated bitcoin devices - dealing with untrusted networks
- Great discussion and good ideas from jim618. Also linked the following video:
- Prof. Clemens Cap's hardware wallet? (video:)Clemens Cap about electronic bitcoin wallet at EuroBit
- Clemens Cap of Uni Rostock explains the Electronic Bitcoin wallet device he's working on. It's based on adafruit microtouch device.
- ripper234's discussion based on Yubikeys Aug 2012 Having a YUBIKEY as one of the parties for m-of-n signatures
- The use of Yubikeys. They only support symmetric crypto, so you'd have to trust the host device.
- kalleguld's hardware wallet proposal Oct 2012 Proposal: Hardware wallet (Win 3 BTC)
- Vaporware: Matthew N Wright's ellet ANN The world's first handheld Bitcoin device, the Ellet! (Vaporware)
Smart Card based wallets
This type of device requires complete trust in the host device, as there is no method for user input. See Smart card wallet
- piglet Hardware wallet wire protocol discussion: Hardware wallet wire protocol
- kjj's Todo List discussion for client protocol requirements: in topic Re: Split private keys
- paybitcoin's original post: Hardware Wallet Roundup